Publikationen der Fellows

Historical Memory of Central and East European Communism

(c) Routledge, 2018
(c) Routledge, 2018

Edited by Agnieszka Mrozik & Stanislav Holubec

Routledge Studies in Cultural History
Routledge, 2018
286 pages, 1 b/w illustration
ISBN: 978-1138-5422-66

Every political movement creates its own historical memory. The communist movement, though originally oriented towards the future, was no exception: The theory of human history constitutes a substantial part of Karl Marx’s and Friedrich Engels’s writings, and the movement inspired by them very soon developed its own strong historical identity, combining the Marxist theory of history with the movement’s victorious milestones such as the October Revolution and later the Great Patriotic War, which served as communist legitimization myths throughout almost the entire twentieth century. During the Stalinist period, however, the movement´s history became strongly reinterpreted to suit Joseph Stalin’s political goals. After 1956, this reinterpretation lost most of its legitimating power and instead began to be a burden. The (unwanted) memory of Stalinism and subsequent examples of violence (the Gulag, Katyń, the 1956 Budapest uprising and the 1968 Prague Spring) contributed to the crisis of Eastern European state socialism in the late 1980s and led to attempts at reformulating or even rejecting communist self-identity. This book’s first section analyzes the post-1989 memory of communism and state socialism and the self-identity of the Eastern and Western European left. The second section examines the state-socialist and post-socialist memorial landscapes in the former German Democratic Republic, Czechoslovakia/Czech Republic, Poland, Lithuania, Ukraine and Russia. The final section concentrates on the narratives the movement established, when in power, about its own past, with the examples of the Soviet Union, Poland, Romania and Czechoslovakia.

You can find more information oor place your order on Routledge's website.

An inter-October Revolution: Poland in 1956–1957

© Znak Horyzont

Jerzy Kochanowski

Znak Horyzont, 2017
448 pages
ISBN: 978-83-240-4208-1
Price: 59,90 zł

On 1 January 1957, the well-known man-of-letters Jerzy Zawieyski posed the question, 'What is going to happen and how will it play out?' He added, 'What Poland witnessed in the last year was not stabilisation. On the contrary: everything remains uncertain, complex and conflict-imbued. Yet, one thing is certain: our former way of life will not be reinstated. Some irreversible damage has been done.' Indeed, the totalitarian characteristics of Stalinism contributed to the fast pace and vast extent of the transition in 1956-7 which affected and involved virtually every social, professional and ethnic group. The scope, intensity and variety of social activity and (self-)mobilisation is ostensibly comparable to the period immediately following the Second World War or even the early days of the transition that occurred after 1989.

There is no doubt that the processes, which took years in other countries, literally occurred in Poland within a few months: between late 1956 and early 1957. The speed with which the transition took place was the result of a unique coincidence and the accumulation of both internal and external factors. With regard to the internal factors, the response to the ideologisation of political, social, economic and cultural life under Stalinism was a sharp rejection of it - all the more so since there were societal actors who were willing to publicly reject it and simultaneously create new values: whether they were members of the former elite or of the new generation for whom the field of action was radically expanded owing to the thaw.

The fact that the communist party apparatus and the surveillance forces were drastically debilitated, albeit temporarily, was enormously important, and indeed, international conditions were also beneficial, thus indicating the external factors. To be sure, the change in Poland would not have been as measurable without the thaw that was simultaneously taking place in the Soviet Union. The years 1955-7 were politically, economically and socially critical for Western Europe as well. The end of Poland's Stalinist isolation finally enabled the transfer of consumption patterns (e.g. motorisation, mass culture) from Western Europe and the United States. Clearly, it can be argued as to what extent the parallel occurrence of the thaw in Poland and the change in the western part of the continent actually contributed to the modernisation leap observed in Poland in 1956-7. In a number of areas - science, industrial design, sports, cultural life, openness to the world and the way it was perceived, the hatching of a modern social structure, the private sector, rural areas, ecology (at its inception), the sphere of ideas, (day)dreams and concepts, to name a few - the change was so extensive and so thorough that it might be stated that within this short period of time, the foundation for modernity had been laid, and indeed, for the political-system transition of three decades later.

Geheime Kommunikationsräume? Die Staatssicherheit an der Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena

© Campus Verlag
© Campus Verlag

Katharina Lenski

Campus Verlag GmbH, 2017
618 Seiten
ISBN-13: 9783593507804
Preis 45,00 Euro

Die Staatssicherheit agierte in der DDR nach 1961,wie Katharina Lenski in ihrer Studie zeigen kann,weniger als Geheimpolizei, sondern vielmehr alsGeheimbürokratie. Die Studie beleuchtet dasenge Zusammenwirken von Universität und Staatssicherheit,aber auch das Hineinwachsen des Wissenschaftsmilieusin einen Geheimhaltungsraum,der von Feindbildern und von Mauern des Schweigensdurchkreuzt war. In diesem dysfunktionalenKommunikationsraum setzte sich Geheimhaltungals Schlüsselkompetenz durch. Das Buch liefertneue Einsichten zur Wissens- und Organisationsgeschichteim Staatssozialismus und lädt ein, zentraleFragen des 20. Jahrhunderts neu zu denken.

Stalinism Reloaded. Everyday Life in Stalin-City, Hungary

© Indiana University Press

Sándor Horváth

Indiana University Press, Bloomington and Indianapolis, 2017
312 pages
ISBN: 978-0-253-02681-1
Price: $35,00

The Hungarian city of Sztálinváros, or "Stalin-City," was intended to be the paradigmatic urban community of the new communist society in the 1950s. In Stalinism Reloaded, Sándor Horváth explores how Stalin-City and the socialist regime were built and stabilized not only by the state but also by the people who came there with hope for a better future. By focusing on the everyday experiences of citizens, Horváth considers the contradictions in the Stalinist policies and the strategies these bricklayers, bureaucrats, shop girls, and even children put in place in order to cope with and shape the expectations of the state. Stalinism Reloaded reveals how the state influenced marriage patterns, family structure, and gender relations. While the devastating effects of this regime are considered, a convincing case is made that ordinary citizens had significant agency in shaping the political policies that governed them.

Red Hangover. Legacies of Twentieth-Century Communism

Kristen Ghodsee

Duke University Press/ Durham and London, 2017
256 pages
ISBN: 978-0-8223-6949-3
Price: $24.95

In Red Hangover Kristen Ghodsee examines the legacies of twentieth-century communism twenty-five years after the Berlin Wall fell. Ghodsee's essays and short stories reflect on the lived experience of postsocialism and how many ordinary men and women across Eastern Europe suffered from the massive social and economic upheavals in their lives after 1989. Ghodsee shows how recent major crises - from the Russian annexation of Crimea and the Syrian Civil War to the rise of Islamic State and the influx of migrants in Europe-are linked to mistakes made after the collapse of the Eastern Bloc when fantasies about the triumph of free markets and liberal democracy blinded Western leaders to the human costs of "regime change." Just as the communist ideal has become permanently tainted by its association with the worst excesses of twentieth-century Eastern European regimes, today the democratic ideal is increasingly sullied by its links to the ravages of neoliberalism. An accessible introduction to the history of European state socialism and postcommunism, Red Hangover reveals how the events of 1989 continue to shape the world today.

Long Awaited West. Eastern Europe since 1944

© Indiana University Press

Stefano Bottoni

Indiana University Press, Bloomington and Indianapolis, 2017
352 pages
ISBN: 978-0-253-02695-8
Price: $40,00

What is Eastern Europe and why is it so culturally and politically separate from the rest of Europe? In Long Awaited West, Stefano Bottoni considers what binds these countries together in an increasingly globalized world. Focusing on economic and social policies, Bottoni explores how Eastern Europe developed and, more importantly, why it remains so distant from the rest of the continent. He argues that this distance arises in part from psychological divides which have only deepened since the global economic crisis of 2008, and provides new insight into Eastern Europe's significance as it finds itself located - both politically and geographically - between a distracted European Union and Russia's increased aggressions.

Die Farbe Rot: Ursprünge und Geschichte des Kommunismus

(c) C.H. Beck

Gerd Koenen

Verlag C.H. Beck oHG, München 2017
1133 Seiten
ISBN: 978 3 406 71426 9
Preis: 38,00 €

"Du schließt die Augen und schaust in die Sonne, und durch deine Lider hindurch siehst du die Farbe deines Blutes - ein Karminrot. Dies ist die Farbe deiner leiblichen Existenz. Grün ist die Farbe der äußeren Vegetation. Gelb ist die Farbe der Sonne. Blau ist der Himmel über dir."

Mit diesen Sätzen beginnt Gerd Koenen seine epische Geschichte eines Traums, der so alt ist wie die Menschheit. Dieser Traum von der großen welthistorischen Kommunion, in der alle Menschen Brüder werden und keiner mehr des anderen Knecht sein muss, hat eine gewaltige Spur durch die Jahrhunderte gezogen, bis im Oktober 1917 die Revolution in Russland den Kommunismus an die Macht bringt. Doch als die Utopie nach der Wirklichkeit greift, wird der Traum zum Albtraum.

Mit grandioser Erzählkunst schildert Koenen die Geschichte des Kommunismus auf eine völlig neue und entstaubte Weise. Er lässt Philosophen, Revolutionäre und Politiker zu Wort kommen, und er beschreibt die Ursachen für die Anziehungskraft der kommunistischen Idee: Herrschaft und Unterdrückung, Elend und Armut der Ausgebeuteten. Die Meisterschaft seines Buches besteht darin, dass er vor Augen führt, warum der Kampf um soziale Gerechtigkeit in einer Welt des Kapitalismus bis heute legitim und aktuell ist - aber ebenso wie und weshalb das Rendezvous des Kommunismus mit der Geschichte in Terror und Paranoia endete.

To See a Moose: The History of Polish Sex Education from the First Lesson to the Internet

Agnieszka Kościańska

Wydawnictwo Czarne, Wołowiec, 2017
424 pages
ISBN: 978-83-8049-526-5
Price: 44,90 zł

This history of struggles against ignorance and double standards starts towards the end of the 19th century, when men learned sex from prostitutes, and when the prevalence of shameful diseases was an open secret. Kościańska guides readers through developments in the field of sex education throughout the 20th century. How did it come to be, that at the beginning of this new age storks suddenly ceased to deliver babies and stories about the birds and the bees no longer satisfied curious girls and boys? What does intercourse have to do with spotting moose? How was sex described in a school textbook scrapped by the communists for fear of offending religious sentiment? Finally, could folk songs convey more information than progressive self-help books? Among Kościańska's protagonists are women and men who had the courage to change how sex was written about. Yet readers will be urged to keep their critical hats on in assessing the contributions of the cult figures of Polish sexology. This work is the first to critically examine Polish sex education in the 20th century.

Curtain of Lies: The Battle over Truth in Stalinist Eastern Europe

Melissa Feinberg

Oxford University Press, 2017
256 Pages
ISBN: 9780190644611
Price: £47.99

While the Cold War governments of Eastern Europe operated within the confines of the Soviet worldview, their peoples confronted the narratives of both East and West. From the Soviet Union and its satellites, they heard of a West dominated by imperialist warmongers and of the glorious future only Communism could bring. A competing discourse emanated from the West, claiming that Eastern Europe was a totalitarian land of captive slaves, powerless in the face of Soviet aggression.

In Curtain of Lies, Melissa Feinberg conducts a timely examination into the nature of truth, using the political culture of Eastern Europe during the Cold War as her foundation. Focusing on the period between 1948 and 1956, she looks at how the "truth" of Eastern Europe was delineated by actors on both sides of the Iron Curtain. Feinberg offers a fresh interpretation of the Cold War as a shared political environment, exploring the ways in which ordinary East Europeans interacted with these competing understandings of their homeland. She approaches this by looking at the relationship between the American-sponsored radio stations broadcast across the Iron Curtain and the East European émigrés they interviewed as sources on life under Communism. Feinberg's careful analysis reveals that these parties developed mutually reinforced assumptions about the meaning of Communism, helping to create the evidentiary foundation for totalitarian interpretations of Communist rule in Eastern Europe. In bridging the geopolitical and the individual, Curtain of Lies provides a perspective that is both innovative in its methodology and indispensable to its field.

Children of Modernism: The Consciosness, Culture and Political Socialization of Jewish Youth in the Second Polish Republic

Kamil Kijek

Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego, Wrocław 2017
464 pages
ISBN: 978-83-229-3525-5
Price: 45 PLN

A central focus of the book is the political consciousness of the generation of Jewish youth that came of age in the 1930s. Its author addresses the question of what influence growing up in an independent Polish state had on the last generation of Polish Jews prior to the Holocaust. The book tracks differences in the socialization and political consciousness of young Jews of various backgrounds, from milieus of traditional merchants and artisans, the working class, orthodox elites to the bourgeoisie. Its subject is the participation of young people in the most important Jewish and non-Jewish political parties and youth organizations active in interwar Poland. The author attempts to answer the question of what impact the peak development of radical ideology in the 1930s, the so-called “Radical modernism”, had on the consciousness and political attitudes of Jewish youth. 

Children of Modernism reveals how socialization and generational experiences shaped the specific identity and culture of Jewish youth in the Second Republic. The most significant feature of the younger generation of Jews was a historically highest level of acculturation, not only in terms of language, but in a more profound emotional connection to Polish national symbols and Polish culture. On the other hand, the representatives of this generation experienced the growing wave of anti-Semitism in the 1930s, while their acculturation and Polish patriotism gave the experiences a particular poignancy. The entrance into adulthood of this generation coincided with the peak of European political polarization, as well as the disintegration of traditional Jewish life in Eastern Europe. As a result of these factors, the youth culture of Jewish society in the Second Polish Republic took on a specific counter-cultural character. 

On the Brink of the Cold War. Yugoslavia and the Civil War in Greece (1945-1949)

Milan Ristović

Filozofski fakultet Univerziteta u Beogradu, Belgrade, 2016
461 pages
ISBN: 978-86-6427-037-3
Price: $ 49,64

This monograph is a syntheis of a research based on the archival material of Yugoslav, Greek and British provenance and extensive literature written in several languages. In his theoretical introduction, Ristović examines conceptual differences in defining and exploring an internal conflict, i.e. the nature of a civil war.

Besides the situation on the ground and the relations between the Yugoslav authorities and Greek communists, Ristović dedicates part of his study to reviewing the civil war in Greece in the wider, European and global, context, giving a title to one of his chapters "´Truman´s Doctrine`, `Russian Baby´ and `British Child`." Ristović points out that apart from the interference of Great Britain and the Soviet Union, the situation on the ground was influenced by the proclamation of the Truma´s Doctrine in March 1947, which was followed by considerable American military and economic assistance to the official government in Athens.

A special part of the monograph is devoted to propaganda war waged between Yugoslavia and Greece, in magazines, on the radio, movies. This conflict activated the traditional stereotypes of the Balkan peoples about each other, and new ideological content, typical for the atmosphere of the Cold War ("monarchic-fascism", "Slavonic-communist danger" i.e.).

Tovární města Baťova koncernu. Evropská kapitola globální expanze [The Company Towns of the Baťa Concern. European Chapter of Global Expansion]

(c) Praha : Academia 2016

Martin Jemelka & Ondřej Ševeček

Praha : Academia 2016
912 pages
ISBN: 978-80-200-2635-4
There are few topics in the Czech historiography of economic and social history which have global potential and resonance, but among them are certainly the activities of the family-owned business of entrepreneurs Tomáš and Jan Antonín Baťa. Already during the inter-war period, the Baťa name attracted attention, divided footwear consumers and manufacturers into crowds of enthusiasts and bitter critics, and became a cornerstone that was latched onto by businessmen, politicians, economic theorists and social critics, as well as proponents of Fordism and social engineering.
The icons of the Baťa enterprise consisted not only of fashionable yet affordable footwear and avant-garde department stores, but also exemplary industrial communities – company towns. A book by two Czech historians is devoted to company towns of the Baťa concern, and is the result of their long-term research on the first truly global enterprise of Czechoslovak provenience. The publication comprehensively traces the economic and, in particular, the social dimension of the Baťa business during its dynamic international expansion.
The transfer of the business system is explored in political and economic aspects of nine European countries in which sixteen company towns were established from the late 1920s through the end of the 1940s. During this dramatic epoch, Europe experienced a crisis of economic liberalism and parliamentary democracy, as well as a period of totalitarian and authoritarian regimes, culminating in the emergence of the Iron Curtain and the constitution of the Eastern bloc.
This revolutionary transformation in footwear production, the first global business model in the footwear industry, assembly-line production and its impacts, and, above, all the model of the company town in its Baťa variants are explored through the lens of the domestic and international scholarly literature, as well as archival sources from a number of European archives. Readers are presented with the dramatic story of the rise and fall of one of the most ambitious business projects on the European continent.
PhDr. Martin Jemelka, Ph.D., (b. 1979) works in the Department for Research and Source Editions, Masaryk Institute and Archives of the Czech Academy of Sciences. Since 2006, he has also been an assistant professor in the Department of Social Sciences, VŠB – Technical University of Ostrava. Dr Jemelka’s areas of specialisation are modern economic and social history, the history of industrial towns and of everydayness, historic demography and modern religious history.
PhDr. Ondřej Ševeček, Ph.D. (b. 1979) works in the Institute of Philosophy of the Czech Academy of Sciences, and has served as the Institute’s director since 2013. He is also a researcher in the Department for the Study of Modern Czech Philosophy. Dr Ševeček’s areas of specialisation are modern economic and social history, and in particular issues linked to the study of supranational corporations, the history of industrial urbanism and the history of economic and social thought.

The Holocaust in Croatia

© University of Pittsburgh Press

Ivo Goldstein and Slavko Goldstein
University of Pittsburgh Press, 2016
736 pages
ISBN: 978-0-822 94451-5
Price: 39,95 Euro
The Holocaust in Croatia recounts the history of the Croatian Jewish community during the Second World War, with a focus on the city of Zagreb. Ivo and Slavko Goldstein have grounded their study in extensive research in recently opened archives, additionally aided by the memories of survivors to supplement and enrich the interpretation of documents. The authors’ accessible narrative, here available in English for the first time, has been praised for its objectivity (including rare humane acts by those who helped to save Jews) and is complemented by a large bibliography offering an outstanding referential source to archival materials. As such, The Holocaust in Croatia stands as the definitive account of the Jews in Croatia, up to and including the criminal acts perpetrated by the pro-Nazi Ustasha regime, and adds significantly to our knowledge of the Holocaust.

Erich Honecker. Das Leben davor 1912-1945

© Verlag C.H.Beck oHG

Martin Sabrow
Verlag C.H.Beck oHG, München, 2016
623 Seiten
ISBN 978-3-406-69809-5
Preis: 27,95 Euro 

Nichts verkörpert die DDR so sehr wie das maskenhafte Gesicht Erich Honeckers und dessen kommunistische Musterbiographie, die ihm der Parteiapparat maßschneiderte. Martin Sabrow zeigt auf der Grundlage zahlreicher unbekannter Quellen, welche überraschenden Brüche und Nebenwege das Leben des saarländischen Jungkommunisten prägten. Erich Honecker (1912 – 1994) war von frühester Kindheit an fest im kommunistischen Milieu des Saarlands verwurzelt, und doch war er als Teenager auch offen für neue Orientierung. Er fuhr nach Pommern, um Bauer zu werden, kehrte für eine Dachdeckerlehre in die Heimat zurück, studierte an der Parteihochschule in Moskau und ging 1933 in den Widerstand. Erstmals werden diese Stationen detailliert nachgezeichnet, und sie eröffnen überraschende Ausblicke, etwa auf Honeckers enges Verhältnis zu Herbert Wehner oder seine Beteiligung an einem Terroranschlag. 1935 musste der Jungfunktionär untertauchen. Was machte er monatelang in Paris? Wie kam es zu seinem konspirativen Einsatz in Berlin und wie zu seiner Verhaftung? Von Rätseln umrankt war bisher auch, wie es Honecker gelang, wenige Wochen vor Kriegsende zu fliehen und bald darauf unbehelligt ins Gefängnis zurückzukehren. Die bahnbrechende Jugendbiographie des Revolutionärs und Überlebenskünstlers endet im Mai 1945, als Honecker eher zufällig Zugang zu Ulbricht fand und der Kaderabteilung seinen kommunistischen Lebenslauf einreichte, über den fortan die Partei wachte.                

Südosteuropa: Weltgeschichte einer Region

© Verlag C.H.Beck oHG

Marie-Janine Calic

Verlag C.H.Beck oHG, München, 2016
704 Seiten
ISBN 978-3-406-69830-9
Preis: 38,00 Euro

Der Balkan - das war von den europäischen Zentren aus betrachtet immer das Fremde, Exotische und Rückständige. Marie-Janine Calic schreibt die Geschichte Südosteuropas als Weltgeschichte und hinterfragt dabei die gängigen Stereotype über die Region. Die Bewohner Südosteuropas teilen viele gemeinsame Erfahrungen, und bis heute sind ihre Schicksale wechselseitig eng miteinander verknüpft. Eine gemeinsame Identität sucht man dennoch vergeblich. Stattdessen hat sich hier eine einzigartige Vielfalt herausgebildet, die sich nicht zuletzt überregionalen Bezügen verdankt. Werden und Wandel Südosteuropas von der Antike bis zur Gegenwart werden daher in diesem Buch nicht bloß aus der Region selbst erklärt, sondern aus einer globalgeschichtlichen Perspektive neu betrachtet. Dabei zeigt sich, dass der Austausch mit dem Rest der Welt eine viel größere Rolle gespielt hat, als es in den gängigen historischen Darstellungen zum Ausdruck kommt.

Rationed Life: Science, Everyday Life, and Working-Class Politics in the Bohemian Lands, 1914–1918

© Berghahn Books

Rudolf Kučera

Berghahn Books, New York, Oxford, 2016
204 pages
ISBN 978-1-78533-128-2
Price 90.00 $/ 56.00 £

Far from the battlefront, hundreds of thousands of workers toiled in Bohemian factories over the course of World War I, and their lives were inescapably shaped by the conflict. In particular, they faced new and dramatic forms of material hardship that strained social ties and placed in sharp relief the most mundane aspects of daily life, such as when, what, and with whom to eat. This study reconstructs the experience of the Bohemian working class during the Great War through explorations of four basic spheres-food, labor, gender, and protest-that comprise a fascinating case study in early twentieth-century social history.

"This is an important contribution to our understanding of working-class life in central Europe during the First World War. Kučera convincingly shows that class mattered, if not in the way that actors at the time believed."  Jakub Beneš, University College, Oxford

"Rationed Life draws upon an impressive array of primary sources while displaying a truly remarkable familiarity with a wide range of secondary sources published in Czech, German, and English. This is an original and thought-provoking book that challenges us to rethink the experience of World War I in Bohemia, and beyond." Chad Bryant, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
Introduction to the book

Die Ostrauer Arbeiterkolonien: Arbeitersiedlungen der Witkowitzer Eisenwerke und weiterer Industriebetriebe

© Universitas Ostraviensis

Martin Jemelka (ed.)

Universitas Ostraviensis, Ostrava 2015
816 Seiten
ISBN: 978 80 7464 754 3

Die Publikation mit dem Untertitel Arbeitersiedlungen der Witkowitzer Eisenwerke und weiterer Industriebetriebe stellt den letzten Band des dreiteiligen Publikationsprojektes Die Ostrauer Arbeiterkolonien dar. Es lieferte in den Jahren 2011 und 2012 die Informationen über baulich-architektonische und soziale Entwicklungen und über die Bevölkerungsstruktur in 54 Kokerei- und Bergarbeiterkolonien an beiden Ufern des Flusses Ostravice. Der abschließende Band dieser Publikationsreihe beachtet die Struktur der beiden vorigen Bänden und untersucht die ehemaligen Arbeiterkolonien in Hinblick auf die aktuelle territoriale Gliederung der Statutarstadt Ostrava [Ostrau], wobei er sich mit Arbeiterkolonien im Privatbesitz und mit Siedlungen der Chemie- und Transportunternehmen in Ostrava auseinandersetzt. Der Schwerpunkt liegt dabei in der Erforschung der Arbeiter-, Meister- und Beamten-Wohnkolonien in den Witkowitzer Eisenwerken [Vítkovické železárny] sowohl auf dem Gebiet von Nové Vítkovice [Neu Witkowitz] - dem ambitionierten Projekt des Generaldirektors Paul Kupelwieser (lebte 1843-1919, als Generaldirektor tätig 1876-1892) und seines Managements - als auch außerhalb dieses Gebiets, wohin die Witkowitzer Eisenwerke seit dem 19. Jahrhundert expandierten.

A History of Modern Political Thought in East Central Europe

© Oxford University Press

Volume I: Negotiating Modernity in the 'Long Nineteenth Century'
Balázs Trencsényi, Maciej Janowski, Monika Baar, Maria Falina, and Michal Kopecek
Oxford University Press, 2016
704 pages, hardback
ISBN: 9780198737148
Price £85.00 

A History of Modern Political Thought in East Central Europe is a two-volume project, authored by an international team of researchers, and offering the first-ever synthetic overview of the history of modern political thought in East Central Europe. Covering twenty national cultures and languages, the ensuing work goes beyond the conventional nation-centered narrative and offers a novel vision especially sensitive to the cross-cultural entanglement of discourses. Devising a regional perspective, the authors avoid projecting the Western European analytical and conceptual schemes on the whole continent, and develop instead new concepts, patterns of periodization and interpretative models. At the same time, they also reject the self-enclosing Eastern or Central European regionalist narratives and instead emphasize the multifarious dialogue of the region with the rest of the world. Along these lines, the two volumes are intended to make these cultures available for the global 'market of ideas' and also help rethinking some of the basic assumptions about the history of modern political thought, and modernity as such.

The first volume deals with the period ranging from the Late Enlightenment to the First World War. It is structured along four broader chronological and thematic units: Enlightenment reformism, Romanticism and the national revivals, late nineteenth-century institutionalization of the national and state-building projects, and the new ideologies of the fin-de-siècle facing the rise of mass politics. Along these lines, the authors trace the continuities and ruptures of political discourses. They focus especially on the ways East Central European political thinkers sought to bridge the gap between the idealized Western type of modernity and their own societies challenged by overlapping national projects, social and cultural fragmentation, and the lack of institutional continuity.

Veterans, Victims, and Memory

© Peter Lang

The Politics of the Second World War in Communist Poland

Joanna Wawrzyniak

Studies in Contemporary History. Vol. 4
General Editors: Dariusz Stola and Machteld Venken
Peter Lang Edition, Frankfurt am Main 2015
259 pages, hardcover
ISBN: 978 3 631 64049 4
Price: 49,95 euros
In the vast literature on how the Second World War has been remembered in Europe, research into what happened in communist Poland, a country most affected by the war, is surprisingly scarce. The long gestation of Polish narratives of heroism and sacrifice, explored in this book, might help to understand why the country still finds itself in a "mnemonic standoff" with Western Europe, which tends to favour imagining the war in a civil, post-Holocaust, human rights-oriented way. The specific focus of this book is the organized movement of war veterans and former prisoners of Nazi camps from the 1940s until the end of the 1960s, when the core narratives of war became well established.

An extract from the book

Rachela Auerbach: Pisma z Getta Warszawskiego [Warsaw Ghetto Writings]

© Zydowski Instytut Historyczny

Opracowanie Karolina Szymaniak

Żydowski Instytut Historyczny, Warszawa 2015
280 pages
ISBN 9788365254092

Critical edition of Rachel Auerbach's most important ghetto writings with a 70 pages long introduction, followed by Auerbach's biography.

POLITYKA-Award for Best Source Edition in the field of the Contemporary Polish History

On 10 May 2016, Prof. Karolina Szymaniak was awarded a Polityka History Award for the Best Source Edition for her edition of Rachel Auerbach's writings from the ghetto.
The Imre Kertész Kolleg proudly congratulates Prof. Szymaniak on the award and her tremendous achievement!

From Prof. Borodziej's laudatory speech:
Karolina Szymaniak, in her own words, found herself facing a maze of texts, both published and unpublished, with words and sentences frequently crossed out, inserted or changed. "Subsequent drafts rose under Auerbach's fingers," like the dough in one of her dreams, "slipping out of control. In Auerbach's particular relationship to the texts, in these acts of constant repetition - of copying, printing these very same texts without being able to rewrite them entirely - one can also recognize signs of trauma." Karolina Szymaniak is addressing us here with practically British understatement. Auerbach's writings are in fact less a maze, than a cross between a jungle and the Tower of Babel. Hyperspectral scanning - I didn't realize such a thing existed - was only partially useful in uncovering earlier versions of the texts. It is only Szymaniak's painstaking editorial work, unsupported by technology, that has given us this extraordinary book, which may now - finally - find its way onto the bookshelves of classic works on the Holocaust.

Press release of Polityka magazine on the award can be found here: Nagrody Historyczne 2016 przyznane!  

Contested Heritage and Identities in Post-Socialist Bulgaria

© Gutenberg Publishing House

Edited by Ana Luleva, Ivanka Petrova and Slavia Barlieva
Gutenberg Publishing House, Sofia 2015
390 pages
ISBN 9786191760459

The cultural and historical heritage of Bulgaria, as elsewhere in the world, is an arena for confrontation of ideas and interests of different groups, stakeholders, local actors, national and transnational institutions and politics.
The authors of this collection are united around the concept of heritage as primarily a cultural construct that is created in the present and refers to the past. In this perspective, it is defined as a set of ways in which the selected material artifacts, natural objects, memories and traditions become cultural, political and economic resources to the present.
The collection of studies shows the diversity of topics relating heritage to identity in post-socialist Bulgaria. Some of them discuss this relationship through the prism of commemoration and memory transformations. Others focus on the transnational processes of “appropriating” heritage, the changes and transformations of the Bulgarian local folk. Two studies are devoted to the earlier period of the establishment of the Bulgarian cultural heritage.  

Thinking through Transition

© CEU Press

Liberal Democracy, Authoritarian Pasts, and Intellectual History in East Central Europe After 1989

Edited by Michal Kopeček and Piotr Wciślik

Central European University Press, Budapest- New York 2015
608 pages
ISBN: 978 963 3860 85 4
Price 58,00 euros

Thinking through Transition is the first concentrated effort to explore the most recent chapter of East Central European past from the perspective of intellectual history. Post-socialism can be understood as a period of scarcity and preponderance of ideas, the dramatic eclipsing of the dissident legacy (aswell as the older political traditions), and the rise of technocratic and post-political governance. This book, grounded in empirical research sensitive to local contexts, proposes instead a history of adaptations, entanglements, and unintended consequences. In order to enable and invite comparison, the volume is structured around major domains of political thought, some of them generic (liberalism, conservatism, the Left), others (populism and politics of history) deemed typical for post-socialism. However, as shown by the authors, the generic often turns out to be heavily dependent on its immediate setting, and the typical resonates with processes that are anything but vernacular.

"It is impossible, after reading this volume, to still give any credit to those who claimed that 1989 was a revolution without ideas, or could not be a revolution because it offered no ideas. We should be grateful that a new generation of scholars-most of whom not burdened by the assumptions and affinities that have inhibited participants and contemporary observers-can look with a cool eye both at the thinking that accompanied radical change and at the sometimes bizarre amalgams that have furnished political language in the last quarter-century in East Central Europe." - Padraic Kenney, Professor of History and International Studies, Indiana University

"This is the most comprehensive and balanced intellectual history so far available of post-communist East Central Europe, and it is particularly instructive on the diversity of the field. The book is essential reading for those who want to know how the multiple transformations of the region were understood from within." - Jóhann P. Árnason, Professor Emeritus of Sociology, La Trobe University,Melbourne

Vladimir Jabotinsky's Story of My Life

© Wayne State University Press

Edited by Brian Horowitz and Leonid Katsis

Wayne State University Press, Detroit 2015
176 pages
ISBN: 9780814341391
Price 31,99 $

Vladimir Jabotinsky is well remembered as a militant leader and father of the right-wing Revisionist Zionist movement, but he was also a Russian-Jewish intellectual, talented fiction writer, journalist, playwright, and translator of poetry into Russian and Hebrew. His autobiography, Sippur yamai , Story of My Life --written in Hebrew and published in Tel Aviv in 1936--gives a more nuanced picture of Jabotinsky than his popular image, but it was never published in English. In Vladimir Jabotinsky's Story of My Life, editors Brian Horowitz and Leonid Katsis present this much-needed translation for the first time, based on a rough draft of an English version that was discovered in Jabotinsky's archive at the Jabotinsky Institute in Tel Aviv. Jabotinsky's volume mixes true events with myth as he offers a portrait of himself from his birth in 1880 until just after the outbreak of World War I. He describes his personal development during childhood and early adult years in Odessa, Rome, St. Petersburg, Vienna, and Istanbul, during Russia's Silver Age, a period known for spiritual searching, but also political violence, radicalism, and pogroms. He tells of his escape to Rome as a youth, his return to Odessa, and his eventual adoption of Zionism. He also depicts struggles with rivals and colleagues in both politics and journalism. The editors introduce the full text of the autobiography by discussing Jabotinsky's life, legacy, and writings in depth. As Jabotinsky is gaining a reputation for the quality of his fictional and semi-fictional writing in the field of Israel studies, this autobiography will help reading groups and students of Zionism, Jewish history, and political studies to gain a more complete picture of this famous leader.

Etnicitás, identitás, politika

© Napvilág Kiadó

Magyar kisebbségek nacionalizmus és regionalizmus között Romániában és Csehszlovákiában 1918-1944
Egry Gábor

Napvilág Kiadó, Budapest 2015
556 pages
ISBN 978 963 338 385 8
Price: 4.700 Ft

A két világháború közti magyar kisebbségek története általában egy trauma- és hanyatlástörténetként jelenik meg. Egry Gábor munkája más megközelítést választ, a kisebbségi eliteket fontos szereplőként kezelve megpróbálja rekonstruálni, hogy milyen módon alakíthatták saját csoportjaik identitását, akár Budapest, akár a nemzetállami központok ellenében is. Ehhez olykor váratlan szövetségesre találtak a regionális többségi elitekben, akik nem ritkán a kisebbséggel vállaltak kvázi-etnikus közösséget többségi társaikkal szemben, bár saját nemzetiesítő céljaikról általában nem mondtak le.
Az eredmény egy messze nem kétoldalú, dinamikus viszonyrendszer volt, amelyben ugyanazok a csoportok akár egyszerre tartozhattak egybe és állhattak a nemzeti közösségek közti határ két oldalán. Mindez azonban nem csupán öntematizáció volt, hanem a mindennapokban is tetten érhető jelenség, ami nem pusztán nemzeti közömbösséget, hanem az élet különböző színtereinek változó mértékű nemzetiesítését is magában hordozta. A nemzetiesítő állam azonban sokszor nem csupán egyénekkel, hanem helyi közösségekkel és szokásaikkal, normáikkal is szembesült. A közösségi és a magánszféra átalakulásának folyamata ennek hatására változatos formában ment végbe; egységes, jogszűkítő nemzetállam helyett sokáig inkább az etnicitás, a nemzetiségi viszonyokat informálisan elrendező helyi kompromisszumok sorát megteremtve.


© Profil knjiga

Ivo Goldstein, Slavko Goldstein

Profil knjiga, Zagreb 2015
930 pages, hardcover
ISBN 9789533134178
Price: 449 kn

...I dok će za neke uvijek ostati "ljubičica bijela", za druge će biti crveni vrag. Poznavatelji povijesti znat će analizirati njegove dobre i loše strane, njegove uspjehe i trijumfe, njegove greške i poraze. Po našem mišljenju uspjesi pretežu nad promašajima, iako ne zanemarujemo ni Titove kardinalne slabosti, pa ni odgovornost za počinjena nedjela u nekim razdobljima njegove vladavine. Naša dužnost i naš cilj u ovoj knjizi bili su da prezentiramo svu kompleksnost jedne iznimne ličnosti i vremena u kojem je ona živjela i djelovala.

The English version of the description of the book will be published shortly. 

Coming of Age under Martial Law. The Initiation Novels of Poland's Last Communist Generation

© University of Rochester Press

Svetlana Vassileva-Karagyozova

Boydell & Brewer, University of Rochester Press, 2015
232 pages, hardcover
ISBN 9781580465281
Price: £55.00

This volume is a study of approximately thirty coming-of-age Polish novels written by the so-called '89ers -- the generation who became adults just as Communist rule was ending. Narrating fictionalized childhoods in Poland in the 1970s and '80s and the transition to adulthood in the late '80s and early '90s, these novels depict the consequences of the fall of Communism for their protagonists' maturation process. Svetlana Vassileva-Karagyozova argues that the liminal aspects of these narratives, in which the protagonists' rites of passage remain suspended in important ways, reflect the effects of the cataclysmic events of the late 1980s as well as the ways in which, for the Polish '89ers, the clash with their predecessors did not produce the anticipated generational change in leadership. Instead, the elders refused to give up their leadership positions, while the young were stifled in their development and occupied marginal social spaces. In Vassileva-Karagyozova's fascinating account, these novels illuminate the authors' attempts to define themselves as a generation as well as to narrate the sociocultural shift in democratic Poland from collectivism to Western-style individualism.

The Enemy on Display: The Second World War in Eastern European Museums

© Berghahn Books

Zuzanna Bogumił, Joanna Wawrzyniak, Tim Buchen, Christian Ganzer and Maria Senina

Berghahn Books, New York, Oxford 2015
200 pages, hardcover
ISBN  978-1-78238-217-1
Price: 90 $

Eastern European museums represent traumatic events of World War II, such as the Siege of Leningrad, the Warsaw Uprisings, and the Bombardment of Dresden, in ways that depict the enemy in particular ways. This image results from the interweaving of historical representations, cultural stereotypes and beliefs, political discourses, and the dynamics of exhibition narratives. This book presents a useful methodology for examining museum images and provides a critical analysis of the role historical museums play in the contemporary world. As the catastrophes of World War II still exert an enormous influence on the national identities of Russians, Poles, and Germans, museum exhibits can thus play an important role in this process.

Ein Land unterwegs. Kulturgeschichte Polens seit 1945

© Ferdinand Schöningh

Markus Krzoska

Ferdinand Schöningh, Paderborn 2015
436 Seiten, Festeinband
ISBN: 978-3-506-78085-0
Preis: 39,90 Euro

Das Bild von Polen und seiner Geschichte ist für viele Deutsche von einer vermeintlichen Fremdheit und Andersartigkeit geprägt. Aber sind die polnischen Nachbarn wirklich so anders?
Dieses Buch zeigt erstmals, wie stark Polen in den vergangenen 70 Jahren in gesamteuropäische und globale Zusammenhänge einbezogen war und was dies für seine Zukunft bedeutet.
Markus Krzoskas überraschende Entdeckung: Die Konsequenzen der ideologischen Teilung des Kontinents im Kalten Krieg waren für die polnische Kultur und Gesellschaft geringer als allgemein vermutet. Viel stärker als in anderen Ostblockstaaten prägten Migration, Mobilität und Verflechtung zwischen Ost und West den Staat zwischen Oder und Bug.
In seiner facettenreichen Schilderung schenkt der Autor dem »sozialistischen« Alltag besondere Aufmerksamkeit – bis hin zu Jazz, Beatmusik, Jugendmoden und dem Wodkakauf.
Ein Buch, das die Perspektive auf unseren wichtigsten östlichen Nachbarn aktualisiert und verändert.


My, ludzie z Marca. Autoportret Pokolenia ’68

© Wydawnictwo Czarne

Piotr Osęka

Wydawnictwo Czarne, Sękowa 2015
368 pages, hardback
ISBN: 9788375368758

For thousands of Polish students who took to the streets in March 1968 to protest the Polish communist dictatorship, the experience marked a turning point in their lives, irrevocably shaping both their world view and future careers. Many of these young activists would go on to found the Workers' Defense Committee (KOR) and serve as leaders of the Solidarity movement. Historian Piotr Osęka's We, the People of March is the first collective portrait of them, Poland's Generation of 1968. A gripping narrative based on dozens of never-before-published biographical interviews, the book presents the lives of its protagonists from childhood to the aftermath of 1989, tracing the fate not only of legendary opposition members, but also less well-known activists from Warsaw, Kraków, Wrocław, and Gdańsk. By situating Poland's March demonstrations within an international context, Osęka's book also provides a necessary contribution to the history of the global protest movement of 1968.

Stefan Czarnowski. Listy do Henri Huberta i Marcela Maussa (1905-1937)

© Oficyna Naukowa

Kornelia Kończal & Joanna Wawrzyniak

Oficyna Naukowa, Warszawa 2015
448 pages
ISBN: 978 83 64363 16 0
Price: 48,50 zł

Stefan Czarnowski (1879-1937) was a scholar of religion and Celtic philology, one of the founders of Polish sociology and a member of the Paris-based L'Année sociologique group. Published now for the first time, Czarnowski's correspondence between 1905 and 1937 with his French mentors Henri Hubert and Marcel Mauss traces the path of Durkheimian sociology from the cosmopolitan milieu of pre-WWI Paris to interwar Warsaw and Europe's new, post-Versailles dispensation. Czarnowski's letters not only document these important intellectual friendships, they invite a new interpretation of the history of sociology in light of its origins and with a view to the international context of early-twentieth-century Polish humanism.

Student Politics in Communist Poland. Generations of Consent and Dissent

© Rowman & Littlefield

Tom Junes

Rowman & Littlefield, New York 2015
328 pages, hardback
ISBN: 978-0-7391-8030-3
Price: 100 $/ 59.95 £

Student Politics in Communist Poland tackles the topic of student political activity under a communist regime during the Cold War. It discusses both the communist student organizations as well as oppositional, independent, and apolitical student activism during the forty-five-year period of Poland's existence as a Soviet satellite state. The book focuses on consecutive generations of students who felt compelled to act on behalf of their milieu or for what they saw as the greater national good. The dynamics between moderates and radicals, between conformists and non-conformists are analyzed from the points of view of the protagonists themselves. The book traces ideological evolutions, but also counter-cultural trends and transnational influences in Poland's student community as they emerged, developed, and disappeared over more than four decades. It elaborates on the importance of the Catholic Church and its role in politicizing students. The regime's higher education policies are discussed in relation to its attempts to control the student body, which in effect constituted an ever growing group of young people who were destined to become the regime's future elite in the political, economic, social, and cultural spheres and thus provide it with the necessary legitimacy for its survival.
The pivotal crises in the history of Communist Poland, those of 1956, 1968, 1980-1981, are treated with a special emphasis on the students and their respective role in these upheavals. The book shows that student activism played its part in the political trajectory of the country, at times challenging the legitimacy of the regime, and contributed in no small degree to the demise of communism in Poland in 1989. Student Politics in Communist Poland not only presents a chronological narrative of student activism, but it sheds light on lesser known aspects of modern Polish history while telling part of the life stories of prominent figures in Poland's communist establishment as well as its dissident and opposition milieux. Ultimately, it also provides insights into modern-day Poland and its elite, many of whose members laid the groundwork for their later careers as student activists during the communist period.

Az ügynök arcai. Mindennapi kollaboráció és ügynökkérdés

© Libri Kiadó

Horváth Sándor

Libri Kiadó, Budapest 2014
460 pages
ISBN 978 963 310 292 3
Price: 4990 Ft
III/III, Stasi, Securitate, KGB – a kommunista korszak közismert rövidítései. Miért váltak az ügynökügyek fontossá 1989 után? Mire jók és mire nem az „akták"? Hogyan őrzik a Stasi, a Securitate vagy a lengyel állambiztonság iratait? Miben „segítettek" a szovjet ügynökök a magyar állambiztonságnak? Mit és miért fényképezett a politikai rendőrség? Milyen szerepet kaptak a nők és a városi terek az állambiztonsági megfigyelésben? Hogyan követték Mindszenty Józsefet és a Beatrice együttes tagjait? A kötet arra keresi a választ, mit tudhatunk meg a társadalomról és a mindennapokról a féltve őrzött aktákból.
Az ügynökvadászat helyett a cél az aktákban szereplő emberek motivációinak és az ügynökkérdésről folytatott vitáknak a megértése. Miért éppen 1989 után váltak minden országban olyan fontos kérdéssé az ügynökügyek? A kötet szerkesztője Horváth Sándor, az MTA Bölcsészettudományi Kutatóközpont Történettudományi Intézetének tudományos főmunkatársa szerint a tanulmányok közreadásának fontos célja, hogy azok a történeti összehasonlítás és a megértés irányába tereljék az ügynökkérdésről folytatott, gyakran hisztérikus vitákat. A kötet tanulmányai a társadalomtörténet, a mindennapok története és a nemzetközi összehasonlítás nézőpontjából elemzik a kérdéskört. Az elméleti írások mellett olvasmányosabb, szélesebb érdeklődésre számot tartó témákat ölelnek fel. Ugyanis hiába közismert rövidítései a kommunista korszaknak a III/III, a Stasi, a Securitate, és a KGB – még ezen szervezetek működésének feltárására sem történt átfogó, nemzetközi összehasonlító kísérlet. Emellett az akták őrzésére alakult intézmények megismerése azért is fontos, mert azoknak mindegyik országban kiemelt szerepük volt 1989 után a közelmúltról folytatott vitákban. Hiszen immár ezeknek a vitáknak is múltja van, melyek szintén a kötet vizsgálati tárgyai.
A tanulmányok első blokkjában olyan neves szerzők, mint Gyáni Gábor, Rainer M. János, Gyarmati György, Ungváry Krisztián és Takács Tibor többek közt arra keresik a választ, hogy egyáltalán miért váltak az ügynökügyek fontossá a közéletben és a történetírásban? Mire jók és mire nem az „akták" és mit tudhatunk meg belőlük a társadalomról és a mindennapokról? A kötet szakít azzal a gyakorlattal, miszerint a magyar szerzők előszeretettel hivatkoznak a környező országok állambiztonsági szolgálataira és irataik őrzési módjaira úgy, hogy alig-alig ismerik azokat.
A tanulmányok második részéből megtudhatjuk, hogyan őrzik a Stasi, a Securitate vagy a lengyel állambiztonság iratait. A franciák második világháborús kollaborációjának emlékezete éppúgy fontos téma az emlékezet működése miatt (K. Horváth Zsolt), mint a szovjet ügynökök magyarországi jelenléte (Baráth Magdolna).
A tanulmányok harmadik részében az aktákat társadalomtörténeti kérdések megválaszolására használják a szerzők. Többek között Müller Rolf a fényképek és a politikai rendőrség kapcsolatával, Pető Andrea a nők és az állambiztonság, Tabajdi Gábor pedig a titkos lakások és a városi tér szerepével foglalkoznak. Az egyházak megfigyeléséből kiemelkedik Mindszenty József megfigyelési ügye. Standeisky Éva tollából sűrű leírását olvashatjuk egy „literátus ügynök" mindennapjainak, aki a rendszerváltás után a szélsőjobboldalt erősítette. A tömegkultúra állami ellenőrzése pedig a Beatrice együttes állambiztonsági aktáiból válik érthetőbbé.

Človek a príroda v dlhom 19. storočí

© Historický ústav SAV

Roman Holec

Historický ústav SAV, Bratislava 2014
341 pages, paperback
ISBN: 978 80 971540 42
Price: 16 €

The relationship of people to nature became evidence of their cultural development in the 19th century. The new attitude to nature was evoked be the Enlightenment optimism of the 18th century, the Romanticism of the first half of the 19th century and by scientific research. The protection of nature had the same roots in Central Europe as in other parts of the continent - in appeals and measures against extensive deforestation. From the beginning, the bearers of the emerging forms of ecological thinking were mainly scientific people and associations. The idea of systematically protecting animals and establishing organizations for this purpose already appeared in the first half of the 19th century. The second stage brought appeals and mass popularization of individual ideas and principals with the participation of many journalists and publicity known personalities. The establishment of mass associations, which used a whole series of effective instruments to propagate and put their principles into practice, forms the essence of the third stage of the movement to protect animals. The life reform movement, which brought new themes to Central Europe around 1900, was one of the intellectual responses to the challenges of civilization, to the turbulent development of industry, science and technology, and to consideration of the future of humanity. These new themes included the new relationship to nature. The protection of nature and animals became one of the key themes and pre-conditions for the survival of humanity, which is approaching the edge of self-destruction.

Zeugen für Gott. Glauben in kommunistischer Zeit, Band I

© Aschendorff Verlag

Thomas Bremer und Burkhard Haneke (Hrsg.)

Aschendorff Verlag GmbH & Co. KG, Münster 2014
276 Seiten
ISBN: 978-3-402-13070-4
Preis: 19,95 €

Im November 2014 jähren sich die Wende von 1989 und der damit einhergehende Zusammenbruch der kommunistischen Systeme in Mittel-, Ost- und Südosteuropa zum 25. Mal. In den Jahren, in denen der Kommunismus die politischen Systeme im Osten Europas bestimmte, haben unzählige Menschen unter den Repressionen dieses Systems gelitten. Viele dieser Menschen wurden dabei aufgrund ihres Glaubens benachteiligt. Dies geschah in verschiedener Weise und unterschiedlicher Intensität: Viele Namenlose wurden ganz grundlegend in ihrer alltäglichen Glaubenspraxis beeinträchtigt, einige wurden ihres Glaubens wegen an der Berufswahl oder der Ausübung ihres Berufes gehindert, andere wurden gezielt überwacht und verfolgt, ins Gefängnis gesperrt und gefoltert, wieder andere mussten für ihren Glauben an Gott sogar mit dem Leben bezahlen. Dieser Band will einigen dieser Glaubenszeugen ein Gesicht geben und besonders die Momente ihres Lebens in den Blickpunkt stellen, in denen sie sich entscheiden mussten und Nachteile auf sich genommen haben. Dabei stehen die Zeugnisse selbst im Vordergrund: persönliche Berichte und Interviews der Glaubenszeugen über das Erlebte, Akten aus Gerichtsverhandlungen und Urteile, Vermerke in Geheimdienstdokumenten. Die Auswahl der Glaubenszeugen berücksichtigt Christen verschiedener nationaler Herkunft und konfessioneller Zugehörigkeit; neben Bischöfen und Priestern werden auch Ordensleute und Laien vorgestellt.

A magyar irodalomtudomány szovjetizálása. A szocialista realista kritika és intézményei, 1945–1953

© Ráció Kiadó

Scheibner Tamás

Budapest 2014, Ráció Kiadó
316 Seiten
ISBN: 978 615 5047 66 4 
Preis: 2750 Ft

Az államszocialista rendszerek kiépítői Lenin óta általában kiemelkedő jelentőséget tulajdonítottak az irodalomnak mint propagandaeszköznek. A második világháború utáni Kelet- és Közép-Európa államaiban a kommunisták így arra törekedtek, hogy a szovjet irodalom mintáját követve megteremtsék a – más művészeti ágakra is kiterjedő – szocialista realizmus helyi változatait. Ez nemcsak az 1930-as évek elején nevet kapott szovjet irodalmi modell utánzását jelentette: szocialista realizmuson nem pusztán művészeti termékeket értünk, hanem az ezekhez kapcsolódó kommentárirodalmat is. Ez a könyv utóbbinak ered a nyomába, azzal a céllal, hogy bemutassa, miként alakult át az irodalomkritika beszédrendje az 1945 és 1953 közötti időszakban. A szocialista realizmus magyarországi terjesztésében kulcsszerepet játszó intézmények vizsgálata mellett az irodalmi kánon átalakításának folyamatait, a Lukács-vitát és elágazásait, illetve a jelentősebb irodalmi eseményeket elemezve a kötet arra törekszik, hogy újra érzékelhetővé tegye a korszak mára alig észrevehető vagy sokszor félreértett utalásrendszerét, s a kiüresedett frázisok köré újraépítse az egykori nyelvi kontextust. A tárgyalt korszak kritikai diskurzusának pontosabb elemzésével a kötet fogódzót ad az egyes írók és költők további irodalomtörténeti értékeléséhez.

„VEREHRT WIRD ER IN SEINEM BILDE…“ Quellenbuch zur Geschichte der Ikonentheologie

© Paulinus Verlag GmbH

Thomas Bremer

Paulinus Verlag GmbH, Trier 2014
324 Seiten, Festeinband
ISBN: 978-3-7902-1461-1
Preis: 29,90 Euro

Ikonen, die Kultbilder der Ostkirche, erfreuen sich seit langem auch bei uns großer Beliebtheit. Sie werden von Gläubigen verehrt und von Liebhabern gesammelt; vielfach werden Ikonenmalkurse angeboten, und in zahlreichen katholischen und auch evangelischen Kirchen finden sich Ikonen. Wenig ist jedoch bekannt über die theologischen Hintergründe der Ikonenverehrung.

In diesem Band werden erstmals wichtige Texte in deutscher Übersetzung publiziert, die das Ikonenverständnis der östlichen Kirche erhellen. Sie zeigen, dass Ikonen nicht nur einfach Bilder sind, sondern dass die Bilderverehrung für östliche Christen eng mit dem Glauben an die Erlösung in Jesus Christus zusammenhängt. Viele dieser Texte stammen aus dem 8. und 9. Jahrhundert, als der „Bilderstreit“ im Byzantinischen Reich Befürworter und Gegner der Bilderverehrung auf den Plan rief. Umfangreiche Begleittexte zur Geschichte des Bilderstreits, den theologischen Inhalten und der Bedeutung der Ikonen in der Orthodoxie heute machen diesen Band nicht nur zu einem Arbeitsbuch für die akademische Lehre, sondern darüber hinaus zu einem Handbuch für alle, die sich für Ikonen interessieren und begeistern. 

Neuerscheinung: Nasza wojna: Europa Środkowo-Wschodnia 1912-1916: Tom I. Imperia

© W.A.B.

Włodzimierz Borodziej, Maciej Górny

Warszawa 2014, Wydawnictwo Buchmann, W.A.B.
488 Seiten 
ISBN: 978-83-280-0941-7
Preis: 44,99 zł

Auf der Grundlage von veröffentlichten Quellen und Fachliteratur zeichnen die Verfasser die heute weitgehend vergessenen Grundzüge des Ersten Weltkriegs in seiner vorrevolutionären, "regulären" Phase bis Ende des Rumänienfeldzugs 1916 auf. Sie befassen sich sowohl mit den Balkanländern als auch mit den nördlichen Großmächten Deutschland, Österreich-Ungarn und Russland. Im Mittelpunkt des ersten Drittel des Buches stehen die Balkankriege, die russische Westfront sowie der Kampf um Serbien und Rumänien. Im zweiten Drittel geht um das Hinterland ("Heimatfront") auf beiden Seiten dieser Fronten, wobei Österreich-Ungarn die meiste Aufmerksamkeit erfährt. Im letzten Teil werden die Besatzungsherrschaften "im Osten" untersucht sowie die Erfahrungen der Zivilbevölkerung in Hinterland und okkupierten Gebieten verglichen. Die Verfasser versuchen, die Ereignisse und Prozesse entlang der Ostfronten zu den weit besser bekannten im Westen in Beziehung zu setzen sowie die Unterschiede zwischen Erstem und Zweiten Weltkrieg herauszuarbeiten.

Der zweite Band ("Nationen, 1917-1923") erscheint 2017.

Przesiedlenia a pamięć: Studium (nie)pamięci społecznej na przykładzie ukraińskiej Galicji i polskich "ziem odzyskanych"

© Wydawnictwo Naukowe Uniwersytetu Mikolaja Kopernika

Anna Wylegała

Toruń 2014, Wydawnictwo Naukowe Uniwersytetu Mikołaja Kopernika
526 Seiten
ISBN: 978-83-231-3180-9
Preis: 38,00 zł

Auf der Grundlage von etwa 150 Interviews untersucht die Verfasserin den Prozess der Neukonstituierung von Krzyże (bis 1945 Kreuz(Ostbahn)) und Schowkwa (bis 1939 Żółkiew). In beiden kam es infolge der Westverschiebung Polens zu einem weitgehenden (Schowkwa) bis vollständigen Bevölkerungsaustausch (Krzyż), beide wechselten innerhalb einer neuen Staatlichkeit ihre Lage von einer östlichen zu einer westlichen Peripherie. Die Verfasserin konzentriert sich auf der Selbstwahrnehmung der heutigen Bewohner und analysiert deren Verhältnis zum ursprünglich neuen Wohnort, anderen Gruppen sowie der eigenen und der vor Ort vorgefundenen Vergangenheit. Im Mittelpunkt stehen die Erinnerung an die Umsiedlung, Identitätskonstruktionen, Prozesse der Verwurzelung der verschiedenen Generationen sowie die Auseinandersetzungen um lokale Helden und Verräter. Die empirische Analyse ist eingebettet in das theoretische Instrumentarium der Gedächtnisforschung und schlägt eine komparative Betrachtung der Erinnerungskulturen in Ostmitteleuropa vor.

Fabricating Authenticity in Soviet Hungary

© Anthem Press

The Afterlife of the First Hungarian Soviet Republic in the Age of State Socialism

Péter Apor

London, New York, Delhi 2014, Anthem Press
228 pages
ISBN 9780857281104
Price: 60,00 £/ 99,00 $

How do you make abstract historical interpretations authentic? This question troubled communist party leaders and propaganda historians in Hungary following the restoration of dictatorship after 1956. Accordingly, this book investigates the crooked history of the retrospective state revisions of the First Hungarian Soviet Republic between the years of its 30th and 40th anniversary, 1949 and 1959.
In recent decades the study of memory has become central to the historical discipline as a powerful conceptual tool to assess both the political-ideological implications of social constructions of the past and the writing of history itself. Yet, most of these investigations focus on postdictatorial situations, and suggest ways to understand how these societies confront their controversial and often traumatic pasts. In this volume, Péter Apor takes an in-depth look at a particular phenomenon - the First Hungarian Soviet Republic of 1919 - to illustrate how a dictatorship and a communist state remembers. Unlike other works analysing social memory, this book concentrates on authenticity as the crucial concept in establishing the success or failure of memory constructions, integrating the broad range of processes - political, scholarly, artistic - through which history is sought to be rendered authentic.

Péter Apor offers innovative, theoretically grounded interpretations of the Communist memory politics. This book is an important work on the history of East European Communism.'
-Gábor Gyáni, Research Professor, Institute of History, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, and Visiting Professor, Central European University

'The memory of the Communist past is a major issue today - Péter Apor reverses the question and reminds us how the Communists themselves distorted national memories. This original book offers a good example of how to deconstruct these sophisticated policies of history.'
-Henry Rousso, Senior Researcher, Institut d'histoire du temps présent, French National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS) '

"Fabricating Authenticity in Soviet Hungary" follows the intricate thread of the long afterlife of a short but deeply controversial historical event. The book forcefully argues that under the condition of politically induced retrospective uncertainty, all historical facts become suspect of fabrication.'
-István Rév, Professor of History, Central European University

Péter Apor is a research fellow at the Institute of History in the Hungarian Academy of Sciences in Budapest and has been fellow at the Imre Kertész Kolleg from January to December 2012.

Beyond the Balkans. Towards an Inclusive History of Southeastern Europe.

© LIT Verlag

Sabine Rutar (Ed.)
LIT VERLAG GmbH & Co. KG Wien, 2014
Bd. 10, 2013, 504 S., 49.90 EUR
ISBN 978-3-643-10658-2

Beyond the Balkans
offers new perspectives on Southeast European history, envisaging the region's history as an integral part of European and global hi- story. Debates about the mental map of "the Balkans" as the negative alter ego of the "the West" (Maria Todorova) and about the construction of the Balkans as a historical space sui generis (Holm Sundhaussen) provide points of depar- ture. The essays treat an exemplary, yet broad set of topics designed to open up idle fields of research. They foster common and coherent methodological lines and establish a new agenda for future research.
Sabine Rutar is Senior Research Associate at the Institute for East and South- east European Studies, Regensburg and has been fellow at the Imre Kertész Kolleg from October 2012 to October 2013.

Erinnerungskultur - Kulturgeschichte - Geschichtsregion

© Franz Steiner Verlag

Ostmitteleuropa in Europa

Stefan Troebst

Franz Steiner Verlag, Stuttgart 2013
440 Seiten, Gebunden
ISBN: 978-3-515-10384-8
Preis: 64 Euro

Der memory boom, die kulturalistische Wende und der spatial turn haben der historischen Forschung zum östlichen Europa etliche innovative Impulse gegeben. Ihrerseits hat auch die Osteuropahistoriographie der Erinnerungskulturforschung, der "neuen" Kulturgeschichtsschreibung sowie dem wiedererwachten historiographischen Interesse an der Kategorie Raum zusätzlichen Schub verliehen. Dies gilt für die Erforschung postdiktatorischer Gedächtniskollektive in ganz Europa ebenso wie für Studien zur visuellen und literarischen Geschichtskultur sowie nicht zuletzt für die in der Teildisziplin der Osteuropäischen Geschichte entwickelten geschichtsregionalen Konzeptionen vom Typus "Südosteuropa", "Ostmitteleuropa" oder "Nordosteuropa" - ein Forschungsdesign, das mittlerweile auch von Ethnologen, Literaturwissenschaftlern und Kunsthistorikern sowie solchen Historikern angewandt wird, die sich mit anderen Teilen Europas befassen. Dieser Band versammelt Aufsätze zu Erinnerungskultur und Geschichtspolitik, (historical) visual culture, einer weit definierten Kulturgeschichte sowie dem Forschungsansatz historischer Meso-Regionen, die in den Jahren 2006 bis 2012 entstanden sind. 

Politica regimului Antonescu faţă de cultele neoprotestante. Documente

© Polirom

The Policy of the Antonescu Regime towards the Neo-Protestant Denominations. Documents

Viorel Achim (ed.)

Bucharest: Editura Institutului Naţional pentru Studierea Holocaustului din România "Elie Wiesel"
Iaşi 2013, Editura Polirom
931 pp., paperback
ISBN: 978-973-88354-98; 978-973-46-3639-6
Price: 49.95 RON
This collection contains documents regarding the policy developed by the Romanian state in the years 1940-1944 towards the neo-Protestant denominations: Baptists, Seventh-day Adventists and Brethren, a total of approximately 100,000 citizens, most of them of Romanian origin. Starting with September 1940 the neo-Protestants became the target of a systematic persecution, which culminated in the banning of their faith, the closing of houses of worship and the punishment of all public expression of faith, the aim pursued by authorities being the intimidation of these people and their conversion to Orthodoxism. Thousands of believers were arrested, imprisoned or interned in camps, and a number of them deported to Transnistria. This policy was connected to the program of the Antonescu government to homogenize the country's population, homogenization which had to be not only ethnic, but religious as well.
Viorel Achim has been fellow at the Imre Kertész Kolleg in 2012. This document collection was partly elaborated at the Kolleg.

Jenseits der Planwirtschaft - Der Schwarzmarkt in Polen 1944- 1989

© Wallstein Verlag

Über das heikle Zusammenspiel von sozialistischer Mangelwirtschaft und Schwarzmarkt in der Volksrepublik Polen.

Jerzy Kochanowski

Wallstein Verlag, Göttingen 2013
475 S., 39 Abb., geb., Schutzumschlag
ISBN: 978-3-8353-1307-1 (2013)
Bereits 1945 kursierte im neuen Volkspolen der Witz: "Was passiert in der Sahara, wenn die Kommunisten kommen? Der Sand wird knapp!" Jerzy Kochanowskis Buch beleuchtet die Versuche von Partei und Staat im Nachkriegspolen, die "sozialistische Wüste" sowohl zu "bewässern" als auch möglichst hohe Erträge aus ihr herauszupressen. Da die meisten Betriebe verstaatlicht worden waren, mussten sich die gesellschaftlichen Akteure auf ein kompliziertes Spiel mit staatlichen Instanzen einlassen, wobei habituell gegen geltendes Recht verstoßen wurde. Diese heikle Interaktion von Planwirtschaft und Schwarzmarkt hielt fast ein halbes Jahrhundert an. Kochanowski untersucht umfassend das friktionsträchtige Zusammenspiel von dirigistischer Wirtschaftspolitik und informellem Wirtschaftssektor in einem Land des sowjetischen Hegemonialbereichs. Mittels interdisziplinärem Zugriff beschreibt er Verhaltensweisen, Mechanismen, Prozesse und Strategien der am Schwarzmarkt beteiligten nichtstaatlichen wie staatlichen Akteure - vom Handel unter der Hand bzw. dem Ladentisch mit Fleisch, Alkohol und Gold bis zu massenhaften und touristisch getarnten privaten Handelsreisen ins Ausland.

Russian Idea - Jewish Presence: Essays on Russian- Jewish Intellectual Life

© Academic Studies Press

Brian Horowitz

Academic Studies Press, Boston 2013
ISBN 9781936235612
310 pp., hardcover, $59.00
In Russian Idea-Jewish Presence, Professor Brian Horowitz follows the career paths of Jewish intellectuals, who, having fallen in love with Russian culture, were unceremoniously repulsed by outsiders. Horowitz relays the paradoxes of a synthetic Jewish and Russian self-consciousness in order to correct critics who have always considered Russians and Jews to be polar opposites and even enemies. In fact, the best Russian Jewish intellectuals-Semyon Dubnov, Maxim Vinaver, Mikhail Gershenzon, and a number of Zionist writers and thinkers-were actually inspired by Russian culture and attempted to develop a sui generis Jewish creativity in three languages on Russian soil.

A Social History of Twentieth-Century Europe

© Routledge
Cover: Béla Tomka A Social History of Twentieth-Century Europe

Béla Tomka

Routledge, 2013
ISBN 978-0-415-62845-7
552 pages, paperback, £24.99

Im März 2013 ist von Béla Tomka A Social History of Twentieth-Century Europe im Routledge-Verlag erschienen. Eine sozialgeschichtliche Überblicksdarstellung über die Hauptaspekte sozialen Lebens, Einwohnerzahlen, Familie und Haushalte, soziale Ungleichheit und Mobilität, Wohlfahrtsstaaten, Arbeit , Konsum- und Freizeitverhalten, Urbanisierung, Bildung, Religion und Kultur.
Béla Tomka war 2012 Fellow am Imre Kertész Kolleg. Große Teile seines Buches sind hier am Kolleg entstanden.
Weitere Informationen finden Sie hier.

Dr. Béla Tomkas A Social History of Twentieth-Century Europe steht auf die Liste der "Choice Outstanding Academic Titles of 2013". Damit ist sein Buch eines von zwei Werken im Fachbereich Geschichte, die im letzten Jahr vom Journal of the American Library Association gewürdigt wurden.